Job Satisfaction A Study of Dhaka metropolitan Police.
Police work tends to be both difficult, stressful and challenging when compared to some other professions as it involves dealing with people and making speedy decisions that could have serious physical, health, social or other impacts upon the public. In a developing country like Bangladesh, the work of police officers become even harder as they have to work in some of the most difficult situations with often limited resources. With the state of national law and order at stake, service delivery of Bangladesh Police, is more important than most of the other organs of the government. This is particularly true for Dhaka Metropolitan Police (DMP), which is entrusted to keep the capital safe and secured. However, like any other organization, quality of service delivery is largely depended on having a workforce that is highly qualified, motivated and more importantly satisfied with their work. Hence, job satisfaction, which is a multifaceted issue, is of paramount importance, and deserves a considerable amount of attention of DMP. This research project aims to identify different factors that influence the level of job satisfaction of employees of DMP.
Drawing from extant literature and findings of several Focus Group Discussions, a questionnaire, comprised of 61 structured questions was devised. 415employees of DMP, from different ranks and divisions were interviewed or surveyed under this research project. In addition 25 in-depth interviews were taken from the ranks of Additional Commissioner to the Commissioner of DMP, thus incorporating both qualitative and quantitative method. Respondents were classified in three broad groups based on designation.
While most of the factors have shown a similar pattern with regards to level of job satisfaction among all three levels of respondents, our findings have also revealed that there are subtle differences among different level of respondents. In addition, opinions of BCS and Non BCS employees were quite different in certain areas like recruitment process, foundation training, availability of vehicles etc. Most of the Non-BCS respondents have shown discontent with recruitment and selection process and allowance during foundation training. Our research has found that it lack of realistic job preview plays a big role in generating high level of dissatisfaction with allowance during foundation training. Most of the respondents were under the impression that they should get a full salary during foundation training like others in civil service, without realizing that unlike others they do not get a confirmation of job prior to finishing the foundation training. This paper strongly recommends to augment the effort to establish a clearer communication with the applicants. Undue political influence has also found to be a major source of dissatisfaction with selection process.
Respondents from all layers were highly dissatisfied with the long working hours with little opportunities to avail leave as they make work-life balance very difficult to attain. A similar level of dissatisfaction was found with regards to adequacy and quality of amenities at accommodation facilities. While the higher level employees have a far better experience relative to employees from lower and mid-level, they too acknowledge that the problem with accommodation is acute at DMP.
Promotion opportunities, and transparency and fairness in that decision, is another factor, where employees from all layers were found to be dissatisfied, even though the degree did vary. Employees, throughout, DMP were also found to be highly dissatisfied with their current compensation and benefit programme as they do not believe that it commensurate with the work load and the amount of risk involved in their jobs. For employees at the lower ends, quality and quantity of uniform and ration were found be a very common source of job dissatisfaction.
Lack of social recognition was another factor that caused dissatisfaction, especially at the lower end. Our observations have also pointed out that there are rooms for improvement in creating a better organizational culture, particularly with regards to soft variables like supervisory style.
This study recommends several avenues to improve the current level of job dissatisfaction among employees of DMP, with keeping different time scales in mind. However, some policy related recommendations could only be implanted by Bangladesh Police, rather than DMP alone. Moreover, the intricacies involved in a multifaceted issue like job satisfaction, demands a holistic approach. Addressing one particular area may worsen the problem in other areas. For instance, merely increasing the number of manpower to reduce the workload, without increasing the accommodation capacity, may mitigate the problem of workload for a while, but would definitely increase the level of dissatisfaction with accommodation. It is imperative that Bangladesh Police and DMP in particular take a holistic view of this issue and take both short and long term measures to alleviate this high level of job dissatisfaction among their employees.